Controlled Synthesis of ZnO Nanostructures by Electrodeposition without Any Pretreatment and Additive Regent
ZnO nanostructures have been fabricated using electrodeposition method without any additive reagent and nucleation-layer. The influences of the applied voltage, temperature, electrolyte concentration, and time on the nanostructures of ZnO have been investigated using cyclic voltammety (CV), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result shows that the 1-dimensional (1D) nanostructures tend to be formed at lower voltage and electrolyte concentration, while 2-dimentional (2D) nanostructures can be easily obtained at higher voltage and concentration. Although increasing temperature is helpful to grow 1D nanostructures, but excessive high temperature will destroy the ZnO nanostructures because of the high solubility of ZnO. Furthermore, we reveal the mechanism of the formation of ZnO nanostructures mainly depends on the competition between the hydroxylation and dehydration reaction. Our work is helpful for developing the photocatalytic and photodetection applications using different ZnO nanostructures.
 J. Huang, M.M. Morshed, Z. Zuo, J. Liu, Applied Physics Letters, 104, 131107 (2014).
 C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S.A. Dayeh, D. Aplin, J. Park, X. Bao, Y.H. Lo, D. Wang, Nano Letters, 7, 1003 (2007).
 P. Rai, S. Raj, K.J. Ko, K.-K. Park, Y.T. Yu, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 178, 107 (2013).
 N.R. Farley, C.R. Staddon, L. Zhao, K.W. Edmonds, B.L. Gallagher, D.H. Gregory, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 14, 1087 (2004).
 S. Shinde, C. Bhosale, K. Rajpure, Journal of Semiconductors, 34, 043002 (2013).
 M.Y.A. Rahman, A. Umar, R. Taslim, M.M. Salleh, Electrochimica Acta, 88, 639 (2013).
 M.R. Khajavi, D.J. Blackwood, G. Cabanero, R. Tena-Zaera, Electrochimica Acta, 69, 181 (2012).
 Y.H. Ko, M.S. Kim, J.S. Yu, Applied Surface Science, 259, 99 (2012).
G. Nagaraju, Y.H. Ko, J.S. Yu, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 149, 393 (2015).
Y. Sun, G.M. Fuge, N.A. Fox, D.J. Riley, M.N. Ashfold, Advanced materials, 17, 2477 (2005).
K. Zarebska, M. Kwiatkowski, M. Gniadek, M. Skompska, Electrochimica Acta, 98, 255 (2013).
D. Pradhan, K.T. Leung, Langmuir, 24, 9707 (2008).
B. Fang, C. Zhang, W. Zhang, G. Wang, Electrochimica Acta, 55, 178 (2009).
X.Y. Kong, Y. Ding, R. Yang, Z.L. Wang, Science, 303, 1348 (2004).
E.S. Jang, J.H. Won, Y.W. Kim, X. Chen, J.H. Choy, Cryst. Eng. Comm., 12, 3467 (2010).
J.C. Deinert, D. Wegkamp, M. Meyer, C. Richter, M. Wolf, J. Stähler, Physical review letters, 113, 057602 (2014).
B. Cao, W. Cai, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 112, 680 (2008).
P.X. Gao, C.S. Lao, Y. Ding, Z.L. Wang, Advanced Functional Materials, 16, 53 (2006).
P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, H.J. Choi, Advanced Functional Materials, 12, 323 (2002).
S. Faÿ, L. Feitknecht, R. Schlüchter, U. Kroll, E. Vallat-Sauvain, A. Shah, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 90, 2960 (2006).
M. Ying, W. Cheng, X. Wang, B. Liao, X. Zhang, Z. Mei, X. Du, S.M. Heald, H.J. Blythe, A.M. Fox, Materials Letters, 144, 12 (2015).
Y. Liu, C. Gorla, S. Liang, N. Emanetoglu, Y. Lu, H. Shen, M. Wraback, Journal of Electronic Materials, 29, 69 (2000).
S. Shinde, G. Patil, D. Kajale, V. Gaikwad, G. Jain, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 528, 109 (2012).
T. Shimogaki, M. Takahashi, M. Yamasaki, T. Fukuda, M. Higashihata, H. Ikenoue, D. Nakamura, T. Okada, Journal of Semiconductors, 37, 023001 (2016).
X. Bai, L. Yi, D.L. Liu, E.Y. Nie, C.L. Sun, H.H. Feng, J.J. Xu, Y. Jin, Z.F. Jiao, X.S. Sun, Electrodeposition from ZnO nano-rods to nano-sheets with only zinc nitrate electrolyte and its photoluminescence, Applied Surface Science 257 (2011) 10317-10321.
 Y. Lin, J.Y. Yang, X.Y. Zhou, Controlled synthesis of oriented ZnO nanorod arrays by seed-layer-free electrochemical deposition, Applied Surface Science 258 (2011) 1491-1494.
 L.F. Xu, Y. Guo, Q. Liao, J.P. Zhang, D.S. Xu, Morphological control of ZnO nanostructures by electrodeposition, J Phys Chem B 109 (2005) 13519-13522.
 D. Pradhan, K. Leung, Vertical Growth of Two-Dimensional Zinc Oxide Nanostructures on ITO-Coated Glass: Effects of Deposition Temperature and Deposition Time, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 112 (2008) 1357-1364.
 S. Sun, S. Jiao, K. Zhang, D. Wang, S. Gao, H. Li, J. Wang, Q. Yu, F. Guo, L. Zhao, Journal of Crystal Growth, 359, 15 (2012).
N. Orhan, M. Baykul, Solid-State Electronics, 78, 147 (2012).
N. Kɪcɪr, O. Ozkendir, A. Farha, F. Kɪrmɪzɪgül, T. Tuken, C. Gumus, S. Ҫabuk, M. Erbil, Y. Ufuktepe, Indian Journal of Physics, 89, 1013 (2015).
J. Elias, R. Tena-Zaera, C. Lévy-Clément, Thin Solid Films, 515, 8553 (2007).
This paper has not been published before. Upon its acceptance for publication in the Journal, I, as the only senior author, agree to transfer (to the extent transferable, if I am a Government employee) to the Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems, or its assignee, all the rights under the existing Copyright laws, except for the following, which the author(s) specifically retain(s):
- the right to make further copies of all or part of the published article for my use in classroom teaching;
- the right to re-use all or part of the material in a compilation of my own words, or in a textbook of which I am the author;
- the right to make copies of the published work for internal distribution within the institution which employs me.
I agree to inform my co-authors, if any, of the terms of this arrangement.