Heavy Metals in Philippine Rice (Oryza Sativa) using Nafion- [Ru(bpy)3]2+-Gold Nanoparticles Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes
Nafion-Ru(bpy)32+-Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified glassy carbon electrodes were fabricated and were used in detecting heavy metals in Philippine rice samples by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The said electrodes were fabricated via the drop coating technique. The concentrations of the modifiers, Ru(bpy)32+ and AuNPs, were varied to determine the best electrode for detecting lead, cadmium, and copper. Based on DPV results, the electrode with 5 mg Ru(bpy)32+ and 3 mg AuNPs was chosen as the best electrode. The calibration curves of the best electrode showed strong correlation values of 0.9984 for lead, 0.9905 for cadmium, and 0.9933 for copper. The limit of detection for lead, cadmium, and copper were 10 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 200 mg/L, respectively. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used as a cross reference to verify the results from DPV. The lead and cadmium content of all the rice samples exceeded the World Health Organizaton (WHO) limit that the body can take. Some samples contained copper above the WHO limit.
 D.E. Keil, J. Berger-Ritchie, G. A. McMillin, Lab. Medicine, 42, 735 (2011).
 S. Smirjdkova, O. Ondrasovicova, A. Kaskova, A. Lakticova, Folia Vet., 49, S31 (2005).
 K. Dzieżyc, T. Litwin, G. Chabik, A. Członkowska, Gait Pos-ture, 42, 601 (2015).
 W. Xu, J. Anal. Sci. Meth. Instrum., 75 (2013).
 L. Xiao, H. Xu, S. Zhou, T. Song, W. Huanhuan, Electrochim. Acta, 143, 143 (2014).
 J. Barek, Port. Electrochim. Acta, 31, 6 (2013).
 H. Kim, S. Yoon, H.N. Choi, Y.K. Lyu, W.Y. Lee, Korean Chem. Soc., 27, 65 (2006).
 Y. Ni, P. Wang, H. Song, X. Lin, S. Kokot, Anal. Chim. Acta, 821, 34 (2014).
E. Canbay, E. Akyilmaz, Anal. Biochem., 444, 8 (2014).
L. Yang, G. Wang, Y. Liu, M. Wang, Talanta, 113, 135 (2013).
L. Yang, G. Wang, Y. Liu, Anal. Biochem., 237, 144 (2013).
S. Palisoc, B. Tuason, M. Natividad, Optoelectron. Adv. Mat., 9, 1435 (2015).
Kaw K., Palisoc S. and Natividad M., Philipp. Sci. Let., 7, 171 (2014).
S. Palisoc, M. Natividad, F. Co, K. Kaw, Optoelectron. Adv. Mat., 9, 1010 (2015).
S. Palisoc, M. Natividad, N. Martinez, R. Ramos, K. Kaw, e-Polymers, 16, 117 (2015).
S. Palisoc, M. Natividad, P. DeVera, B. Tuason, Philipp. Sci. Lett., 7, 372 (2014).
S. Palisoc, M. Natividad, P. DeVera, B. Tuason, J. New Mat. Electr. Sys., 17, 205 (2014).
S. Palisoc, M. Natividad, D. Calde, E. Rosopa, J. New Mat. Electr. Sys., 19, 223 (2016).
S. Palisoc, N. Valeza, M. Natividad, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 12, 3859 (2017).
S. Palisoc N. Causing, M. Natividad, Anal. Methods, 9, 4217 (2017).
S. Palisoc, K. Kaw, M. Natividad, J. Robles, J. New Mat. Electr. Sys., 20, 77 (2017).
S. Palisoc, D. Uy, M. Natividad, T.B. Lopez, Mater. Res. Ex-press, 4, 116406 (2017).
T. B. Lopez, S. Palisoc, M. Natividad, Sens Biosensing Res., 15, 34 (2017).
A. Fagan-Murphy, M. Allen, B. Patel, Electrochim. Acta, 152, 249 (2015).
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
This paper has not been published before. Upon its acceptance for publication in the Journal, I, as the only senior author, agree to transfer (to the extent transferable, if I am a Government employee) to the Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems, or its assignee, all the rights under the existing Copyright laws, except for the following, which the author(s) specifically retain(s):
- the right to make further copies of all or part of the published article for my use in classroom teaching;
- the right to re-use all or part of the material in a compilation of my own words, or in a textbook of which I am the author;
- the right to make copies of the published work for internal distribution within the institution which employs me.
I agree to inform my co-authors, if any, of the terms of this arrangement.